Federal Registration Service

Buyer must submit a written request to provide land ownership. After one month will be answered about the possibility of signing a contract of sale and purchase of land. Further, will need to order special topographical survey of the site, approve the project boundaries, to put a site on cadastre and land surveying to work on. After that the administration prepare a resolution on provision of land ownership, on the basis of which will be awarded the corresponding contract of sale and purchase of land. The second option – provides the order of registration of land in the presence of zemleotvodnyh original documents. This refers to areas designated for agriculture or suburban private housing construction on the property right, inheritable possession for life or unlimited use.

Therefore, if a person has concluded a contract of sale and purchase of land and he has documents proving his right to land, he may issue a simplified procedure in section property. To do this he must make available documents to the Federal Registration Service, and attach the passport inventory of land. If the area has been increased, and its area is not corresponds to the original area, the citizen has the right to work on surveying and get to the property is actually occupied by the land area. Depending on the situation of the documents for registration land varies. May require any examinations, approvals and other procedures. But in any case it is necessary to obtain cadastral plan of the land and pass state registration of rights to land.

Paris Building

There is nothing like his palaces, parks, fountains, sculptures and ponds. Versailles is only at the Sun King. And he is lord of Hardouin-Mansart. The royal architect, this time brilliantly coped with the task – To build beautiful, safe, fast. For the past ten years, from 1678, Hardouin-Mansart directs the work at Versailles. He rebuilt and enlarged the royal palace, built more for the current monarch's father – Louis XIII … The story itself Hardouin-Mansart called to embody in the architecture of flowering unlimited power of French kings. He knew he could.

No wonder that he was a descendant and disciple of the Francois Mansart – a very respected man, a prominent architect. The whole of France the first half of XVII century, knew of his work in the strict and seasoned classical style … Both the French – and the uncle and nephew – a lot of attention paid not only to building facades, and roof. Her role in their creations was so great that the name of the French architects has given birth to a new term – "Loft". Pleasures of the mansard life today is already a spent XX century. Today, under the name "attic" means the attic space under the cool the broken roof.

Which, as mentioned in the encyclopedia, "is used both for housing and for economic purposes." And even if the original attic of the house was not provided, it can build on, increasing the useful area of the building. Live in the attic has always been very romantic. Not for nothing are so loved by artists and poets. Loft, like a true Parisian, generously gives its residents an atmosphere of extraordinary comfort and the possibility of seclusion, much valued and a hundred years ago and now. "Well, then in Paris," – says a skeptical reader. And did you know that we have a few years ago adopted a program adjustment five-story building (or, simply, "Khrushchev"), which, among other improvements and enhancements of living space, includes the add-attic? Moreover, this program is even slowly comes to life in some suburban towns. And many affluent citizens are not averse to acquire attics wooden windows. So the question of the proper device, as you see, do not idle.

Home Heating with Radiators

Electric radiators are cooled with an intermediate variant of the traditional electric radiators water and steam heating. The principle of such radiators based on the natural circulation of coolant. In a sealed enclosure is heat transfer fluid (usually mineral oil), which fills the entire working volume of the instrument, except the upper part of the compensating thermal expansion of liquid. Around at the bottom of the heater there is a heated layer, which has a lower density than the rest of the liquid, so the "pop" up. Upward flow of fluid is midway between the housing wall heating radiator, and the walls fall down a cold liquid, gave them their heat. The coolant can also change the physical state and is a two.

The heater is placed at the same time in the liquid phase, which occupies a relatively small fraction of the volume and current stage of intense evaporation. The steam fills the rest of the volume and condenses on the walls of the body heating radiator, giving them heat of vaporization. The condensate flows down the walls of the heater. Electric radiators-phase coolant also differ in body design, that may be sectional and panel. Housing evaporation-condensation of electric radiators are usually . Other classification characteristics of electric radiators are design (floor, wall, mobile), control and monitoring system (Thermolimiter, switch, power regulator, temperature controller), and the availability of additional devices.

Types and basic parameters Domestic oil-filled electric radiators are as follows. 1. Type: pma. Name: Electric heating radiator with automatic temperature control air in the room. Rated power, kW: 0,5; 0.8, 1.0, 1.25. / 1,6; 2.0 Rated voltage, V: 127; 220 / 220 2. Type: rmb. Name: Electric heating radiator with a power regulator. Rated power, kW: 0,5; 0,8; 1,0 1,25. / 1,6; 2.0 Rated voltage, V: 127; 220 / 220 3. Type: pmc Name: Electric heating radiator with a power switch. Rated power, kW: 0,5; 0,8; 1,0 1,25. / 1,6; 2.0 Rated voltage, V: 127; 220 / 220 4. Type: rmt Name: Electric heating radiator with Thermolimiter. Nominal , kW: 0,5; 0.8 / 1.0 Rated voltage, V: 127; 220 /

Housing Plate Apparatus

For example, in the heater VVPI-350 the number of tubes of 97 pcs., And k values in the light pollution are 1150-3200 W / (m 2 K). The maximum value of k is limited to the maximum allowed pressure loss 50 kPa (5 meters of water. Art.) Minimum values of heat transfer coefficients are modes of ta with a small heat removal. Analysis of the data sets under consideration shows that they are in a contaminated condition characterized by the coefficient of heat transfer, which is not worse than the heat transfer coefficients of contaminated ta plate. Is of interest to compare performance of modern plate-TA for public utilities and shell and tube represented the ta. Carry out such a comparison based on vg Baron 6.

Authors articles of design of tubular heat exchanger having a body is not in the form of the casing (pipe), and as a parallelepiped that is similar to the housing plate apparatus. Others design features virtually no differ from those previously developed by the authors of ta. In the case of pipes with external diameter of 12 mm and 13.2 mm pitch (adhesive fixing in tube sheets) dimensional volume psevdoplastinchatogo ta for example 2 will be 0.133 m3, and in the case use of standard split pipes vvpi with fixing pipe welding – 0.158 m3, which is less than the mapped plate apparatus (0.19 m3). Thus, for tubular ta compactness achieved, exceeding the figure for Plate competitors, which puts an end to the dispute of constructive types of ta for municipal services – with the proper approach to the arrangement of tube bundles of shell and tube plate ta ta superior in all respects. Issued by the ta have been successfully operated in the public utilities of Novgorod, towns and villages of Novgorod, Vladimir, Tver, Tomsk, Perm Region, Republic of Mari El, Karelia and other regions of Russia, including successfully replacing the plate-TA successfully been produced replacing the TA-type pp (MF) on vvpi (PVPI) in some regions (CBM Utilities Kovrov, Paul, re Tumbotino, etc.)

Building Fixed Capital

Fixed capital by types of assets divided by the building and construction, machinery, equipment, vehicles and equipment and others. According to this classification are distinguished and the kinds of investments in fixed assets. Investment in buildings and facilities is the cost of construction of these facilities. Costs consist not only of payments for construction work, they also include other capital expenditures, for example, costs for the facility to operate, that is, the organization of communication within the facility, and others. Investment in accommodation costs are for construction of buildings for permanent human habitation.

Such buildings part of the housing stock. These include not only the apartments, as well as various facilities for children, nursing homes, boarding houses, dormitories and so forth. Also, investment may be made in those dwellings that do not part of the housing stock. Investments in machinery, equipment and tools, vehicles – the cost to purchase the above-mentioned objects, their assembly and installation, commissioning, testing reliability. In addition, investment in fixed assets include cash, invested directly in the production itself. Investments in production can be classified according to their investment objectives. There are investments that are going to replace worn out equipment or to upgrade an existing but significantly outdated. By volume of such investments can be compared with depreciation and amortization.

They retain The amount of capital, but not reduce it. Another type of investment is invested in production for its development, improve the scientific and technical level. They can be extensive and intensive, depending on the orientation. AND the last kind of monetary investments made in stocks, for example, raw materials, supplied products and more. In addition, investment in fixed assets can be classified according to their orientation. Distinguish investment invested in new construction and investment, aimed at organizing the reconstruction and modernization of existing facilities. Another characteristic that can be classified as investments in fixed assets, is their funding sources. So as a source may make their own or borrowed funds.

Energy Saving in Russia’s Residential Sector

In summer 2008, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev had identified priority areas for modernization of the domestic economy: to reduce by 2020 the energy intensity of Russia's gdp by 40%. Ambitious goal, but the other way reach the level of effectiveness of the industrialized countries today is not there. And the question number 1, which we have to solve: reduction of energy utilities. It is no exaggeration: according to the Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEF), the main potential of the Russian energy today is laid in a communal, rather than in the industrial sector. In particular, the heat consumption of apartment buildings built before 1990, is 3-5 times higher than that Object years building. And it is these houses are the basis of Russia's housing stock. More acute the problem is getting in regions with harsh climates: for example, in the north, Siberia and the Far East.

And it needs to be addressed in a complex, considering the two main complementary aspects of energy saving in residential sector: the quality of building insulation and the efficiency of heating systems. Ways to reduce heat losses are evident for the majority of citizens and professionals and communal services sector. This warming and reconstruction of the facades, roof repair (including replacement with pitched), the installation of energy efficient building envelope (Plastic windows, etc.), as well as the restoration of foundations and insulation of basements. Most of these activities is provided by law 185-FZ, whereby the federal program implemented by major repairs. As for heating systems, today to upgrade their often one-sided approach.