This information is recorded in the project documentation in accordance with which an excavator removed the upper (vegetation) layer of soil and begins development of the pit. The width of the bottom of the pit is calculated from the width of the constructed buildings and materials, availability and type of attachment kotlovanai used methods of dewatering. Further details can be found at Richard LeFrak, an internet resource. To ensure stability of excavations, erect with their slopes, the steepness of which is calculated based on their natural slope – 15 to 50 (depending on soil type). When unstable soils slopes pit guarded by landslides and sloughing pile fences, struts and other methods. In particularly difficult geotechnical conditions, unstable soils reinforced by artificial means – bituminization, silikatizatsiey, freeze it.

Development pits under the buildings and made various kinds of earth-moving machinery – excavators, bulldozers, scrapers, etc. If the area flooding, the digging of pits hold suction shells and jetting. For the development of pits under the individual supports and poles used construction equipment, operating on the principle of drilling. Underground urban communications, located in the construction zone, suspended in the pit at vperiod the works of the zero cycle. Pipes are placed in steel casings that are suspended vkotlovane to beams that are attached to the piles. Earthworks in the vicinity of underground utilities are manufactured exclusively using manual tools, observing the necessary safety precautions. ahim.

In this case, one must have on-site technical supervision and representatives organizations that operate underground utilities. After digging the pit doing his bottom, and leveling utrambovyvaya place under the foundation. Removal of dug earth is a necessary step in excavation for all, not just for those who fight for clean room construction. However, part of the land must be left for subsequent backfilling. After raising the necessary designs begin to backfilling trench. To guarantee the stability of structures and their normal work, backfilling lead immediately with 2-side buildings on a single height with stratified soil compaction. Earthworks – a very important part of building that requires exceptional precision in the calculations and has a large number of nuances, so you need to lay on the shoulders of this business professionals.

Classic Fireplace

On the classical mantelpiece and his congregation with a closed firebox construction principles of classical fireplace, inscribed into the interior of the house, namely the fireplace with open fires remain unchanged for hundreds of years, and the same, there are mistakes, which sometimes make even experienced potters. Because the fireplace – not an ordinary product, which, to put it either, everywhere will be in place. Fireplace – one individual. But its effectiveness depends largely on the characteristics of room in which it is located. And since every living room also has its own individual characteristics, to properly combine them.

How is the idle fireplace? Like any other engineering design, has a fireplace some reference point. This is the simplest version of demonstrating the principle of system construction. Finalization of the simplest design possible to utilize a more economical energy otaplivaya her room. Other improvements made fire safe. But the foundation of all models is one. Having decided to install a fireplace, do not look at what it will be the main heating elements of the room. Of course, a fireplace – a type of furnace.

But the oven closed furnace, it heats the room with all his "body", which is heated during firing. The fireplace is a large open hole and the firing line the chimney. Heat during firing quickly goes through these two holes, no time to warm up the design itself. Only heated wall of the fire, but it certainly is not enough. The main fireplace, heat is transferred by radiation from the burning fuel.

Paris Building

There is nothing like his palaces, parks, fountains, sculptures and ponds. Versailles is only at the Sun King. And he is lord of Hardouin-Mansart. The royal architect, this time brilliantly coped with the task – To build beautiful, safe, fast. For the past ten years, from 1678, Hardouin-Mansart directs the work at Versailles. He rebuilt and enlarged the royal palace, built more for the current monarch's father – Louis XIII … The story itself Hardouin-Mansart called to embody in the architecture of flowering unlimited power of French kings. He knew he could.

No wonder that he was a descendant and disciple of the Francois Mansart – a very respected man, a prominent architect. The whole of France the first half of XVII century, knew of his work in the strict and seasoned classical style … Both the French – and the uncle and nephew – a lot of attention paid not only to building facades, and roof. Her role in their creations was so great that the name of the French architects has given birth to a new term – "Loft". Pleasures of the mansard life today is already a spent XX century. Today, under the name "attic" means the attic space under the cool the broken roof.

Which, as mentioned in the encyclopedia, "is used both for housing and for economic purposes." And even if the original attic of the house was not provided, it can build on, increasing the useful area of the building. Live in the attic has always been very romantic. Not for nothing are so loved by artists and poets. Loft, like a true Parisian, generously gives its residents an atmosphere of extraordinary comfort and the possibility of seclusion, much valued and a hundred years ago and now. "Well, then in Paris," – says a skeptical reader. And did you know that we have a few years ago adopted a program adjustment five-story building (or, simply, "Khrushchev"), which, among other improvements and enhancements of living space, includes the add-attic? Moreover, this program is even slowly comes to life in some suburban towns. And many affluent citizens are not averse to acquire attics wooden windows. So the question of the proper device, as you see, do not idle.