LED Lighting In Offices

In this article we try to consider the appropriateness of the use of led lamps in the context of existing standards of illumination and a comparison of led lamps with fluorescent lamps, the most common light sources in the office premises. An ordinary person spends at work about a third of his adult life. On average career person annually accounts for approximately 1900 hours, ie 20% of the total annual lifetime and 30% of the daily regime of wakefulness. Manhattan’s Financial District has plenty of information regarding this issue. It should be noted that within 16-17 weeks in our latitudes (about 700 hours) in the autumn and winter the need for artificial light increases. To know more about this subject visit Munear Ashton Kouzbari, Dallas TX. Therefore, in the workplace and in work environments must be created for the employee the most comfortable conditions. One of the key moments of a comfortable environment ('environment') is the lighting. Lighting belongs to Among the most important factors shaping the 'climate of labor' in the working office. Office is now not only a place of work – it's already full range of living space.

In our time the universal unification and standardization life coverage in all developed countries are subject to numerous international and national rules developed over decades of rigorous research and practical observations. These rules establish a specific set of requirements for the quantity and quality of lighting. Of what is this set of rules, in particular with respect to the coverage of the so-called 'office' premises, ie premises in which people are engaged mainly clerical work – the development and processing of documents, writing, reading, working with different instruments and apparatus (in our time – mostly with computers and other sophisticated office equipment)? Main regulatory document, currently in force in Ukraine in the field of artificial and natural lighting, is snip II-4-79 'Natural and artificial lighting', approved in 1979, he regulates rates lighting and external territories of settlements, but now obsolete, has several disadvantages, and therefore requires revision and updates of current research data.

Shutters

Shutters (English roll – a roll, in Russian. Shutters) – a kind of blind, made in the form of a roll, two guides and walking on his plate. There are also names rolstavni, rollstavni, blinds, shutters. People such as John Savignano would likely agree. Shutters are installed in windows, doors and garage openings and are designed to protect the premises from burglary, adverse weather conditions, noise, dust, light and prying eyes. In some ways they may be similar in appearance to certain types of blinds, but categorical distinction is precisely the emphasis on the protective function for windows, doors, balconies and front doors of apartments and shops.

Usually the practice setting involves the installation of the outside to protect the glass from the partition and from penetration by malicious users. Shutters can be programmed to control lighting. In bright sun shutters themselves sink to the desired height. At nightfall, they are automatically closed. Operation of roller shutters did not cause any inconvenience, they are easy to maintain and care for them can be carried out without assistance. The first shutters have been around since ancient Greece. For assistance, try visiting Vadim Belyaev. They were made of marble (Later – from the wood) and used as protection from the tropical heat and sunlight, as well as for ventilation. The concept of blind spread throughout the Mediterranean.

Later, they received distribution in Europe. In the Middle Ages solid shutters, hammered together from planks with iron bars, used as a means of protection against unwanted intrusions and cold. In the xv century, widespread panes led to the transformation of blinds from strictly functional to decorative accessories. In the southern usa wealthy landowners have used shutters to brighten and ventilate their homes. The next stage of this direction has been the protection of windows from hurricanes and tornadoes. It was then and there were shutters in their modern sense.

Multichannel Measuring Amps

Application in practice are often situations arise where it is necessary to obtain a normalized analog signal from the strain gauges in the vicinity of the measurement object. Thus, can be realized long-distance cable lines. This problem can best be solved by a linear measuring amplifier model 9236. Single-channel version with a high protection class (IP67) can be applied to industrial applications with harsh environmental conditions outside the control cabinet. In a multi-channel version up to four measurement channels can be installed in one housing with mounting on din rails.

This means measuring amplifiers that can be placed, or in a control cabinet or directly from the sensor. Users who want to embed instrumentation amplifier devices in their own designs or to existing circuit boards can also be ordered open-frame version of the amplifier. Integration may be accomplished by screw terminals. Model 9236 measuring amplifier is used everywhere, where output strain gauge force sensors, pressure, torque, must be converted into an analog voltage signal, such as: Automated Production Equipment Integration Laboratory measurements user equipment field measurements Description Power supply instrumentation amplifier is 15 30 =. Internal exemplary power supply with short circuit protection provides nutrition strain gauges. Input range of the amplifier corresponds to the sensor output signals between 0.5 and 30 mV / V and is also suitable for semi-conductor strain gauges. Analog output voltage can be

Mechanisms

Wheels odnorebordnye: Mechanisms of movement are called nodes, providing, as a rule, the horizontal movement of lifting machine (crane) or part (truck). The mechanisms of movement with the rails include bridge, gantry, cantilever, gantry, tower and railway cranes, bridge cranes. For track use the mechanisms of movement of crane wheels (drive, idle). All items mechanism of movement placed on the moving frame lifting machine (crane), or truck. Mechanisms of movement of crane wheels, in turn, move along double-girder paths. The mechanism of movement is composed of motor, gear drive transmission system and chassis (Crane wheels with bush and the shaft (drive, blank) Crane wheel undercarriage mechanism of movement of the crane is one of the main parts crane machines, in addition, has the property quickly deteriorate under heavy usage. There are different types of wheels such as wheel and dvuhrebordnoe odnorebordnoe.

Crane wheels are manufactured according to gost 28648-90 Billet crane wheels are manufactured so-called method of stamping or forging. In the manufacture of the mechanism of movement of steel is used categories 65G gost 14959-79. After machining Crane alloy heat-treated (sorbitizing). Crane wheel should have a hardness of track riding from 300 to 390NV. The depth of the hardened layer up to 30 mm depending on the diameter of the wheel. Sorbitizing necessary to achieve smooth transition from the hardened metal to non-hardened metal. Heat treatment process takes place in spreyernoy setup with constant control parameters (temperature and water pressure, cooling rate).

At the moment sorbitizing crane wheels is the best method of treatment has some significant advantages compared to bulk quenching and tempering T. C., such as high durability, cushioned hub, hardening depth of 30 mm. Wheels odnorebordnye: Mechanisms of movement are called nodes, providing, as a rule, the horizontal movement of lifting machine (crane) or part (truck). The mechanisms of movement having the track include bridge, gantry, cantilever, gantry, tower and rail cranes, overhead cranes. For track use the mechanisms of movement of crane wheels (drivers, idle). All elements of the mechanism of movement placed on the moving frame lifting machine (crane), or truck. Mechanisms of movement of crane wheels, in turn, move along double-girder paths. Mechanism movement consists of an electric motor, gear drive systems, transmissions and chassis (Crane wheels with bush and the shaft (drive, blank) Crane wheel undercarriage mechanism of movement of the crane is one of the main parts of crane machines, in addition, has the property deteriorate rapidly, with heavy usage. There are different types of wheels such as wheel and dvuhrebordnoe odnorebordnoe. Crane wheel manufactured according to gost 28648-90 Blanks crane wheels are manufactured so-called method of stamping or forging. In the manufacture of the mechanism of transport shall be steel categories 65G gost 14959-79. After mechanical handling crane wheels were heat-treated (sorbitizing). Crane wheel should have a hardness of track riding from 300 to 390NV. The depth of the hardened layer up to 30 mm depending on the diameter of the wheel. Sorbitizing needed for a smooth transition from the hardened metal to non-hardened. Heat treatment process takes place in spreyernoy setup with close control of parameters (temperature and water pressure, cooling rate). At the moment sorbitizing crane wheels is the most optimal method of treatment which has some great advantages in comparison with the bulk quenching and tempering T. C., such as high durability, cushioned hub, depth quenching to 30 mm.

Wood Content

One of the properties of wood is its ability to modify its own moisture. This property is called hygroscopicity. Humidity varies depending on the environment – if the wood is wet, then dry air, it emits moisture, if the air is humid and dry wood, it takes moisture. Thanks colloidal substances in the wood cells percentage of bound moisture in her could not be more specific maximum (30%), which depends on temperature and wood species. If the total moisture content greater than this maximum, then the timber is also free water, whose volume is calculated from the ratio between the walls cells and their cavities (from 50-60 to 200-250% depending on the breed). There are so-called stable moisture content.

Her material gets, if present in the air with a steady state (temperature, humidity, etc. characteristics) in two ways – sorption and desorption. If the air condition will change, the moisture content of wood will either increase or decrease. Sorption – the absorption of moisture from the air timber. Desorption – drying and, consequently, the release of moisture in the environment. When measuring the moisture content of wood is used as an indicator of sorption hysteresis. It is derived from the difference between a stable moisture content for desorption and sorption. The value of this index is largely dependent on the sample size – about 2.5% moisture content for samples more 15h100 (ShhD).

Housing Plate Apparatus

For example, in the heater VVPI-350 the number of tubes of 97 pcs., And k values in the light pollution are 1150-3200 W / (m 2 K). The maximum value of k is limited to the maximum allowed pressure loss 50 kPa (5 meters of water. Art.) Minimum values of heat transfer coefficients are modes of ta with a small heat removal. Analysis of the data sets under consideration shows that they are in a contaminated condition characterized by the coefficient of heat transfer, which is not worse than the heat transfer coefficients of contaminated ta plate. Is of interest to compare performance of modern plate-TA for public utilities and shell and tube represented the ta. Carry out such a comparison based on vg Baron 6.

Authors articles of design of tubular heat exchanger having a body is not in the form of the casing (pipe), and as a parallelepiped that is similar to the housing plate apparatus. Others design features virtually no differ from those previously developed by the authors of ta. In the case of pipes with external diameter of 12 mm and 13.2 mm pitch (adhesive fixing in tube sheets) dimensional volume psevdoplastinchatogo ta for example 2 will be 0.133 m3, and in the case use of standard split pipes vvpi with fixing pipe welding – 0.158 m3, which is less than the mapped plate apparatus (0.19 m3). Thus, for tubular ta compactness achieved, exceeding the figure for Plate competitors, which puts an end to the dispute of constructive types of ta for municipal services – with the proper approach to the arrangement of tube bundles of shell and tube plate ta ta superior in all respects. Issued by the ta have been successfully operated in the public utilities of Novgorod, towns and villages of Novgorod, Vladimir, Tver, Tomsk, Perm Region, Republic of Mari El, Karelia and other regions of Russia, including successfully replacing the plate-TA successfully been produced replacing the TA-type pp (MF) on vvpi (PVPI) in some regions (CBM Utilities Kovrov, Paul, re Tumbotino, etc.)